TRAF6 and LC3 gene expressions in Colorectal cancer patients and Predicting metastasis using deep machine learning

Mahgol Mohammadi


Background: Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths around the world. This type of cancer, like other cancers, is caused by the influence of environmental and genetic factors. According to recent studies, several genes are involved in the autophagy mechanism of colorectal cancer which among them can point to TRAF6 and LC3 genes. we analyzed the expression levels of these genes in colorectal cancer tissues. Also, in this study, we predict metastatic CRC patients using the deep-learning.
Method: To evaluate the gene expression level, thirty-two colorectal tumor samples and adjacent normal samples were used for carrying out the Real-Time PCR method. Also, a model based on deep CNN was designed for the prediction of metastatic symptoms in CRC patients.
Results: We reported that there was a significant difference in the expression level of TRAF6 and LC3 genes in tumor samples compared to normal samples (P<0.05). However, this study was designed as a pilot study, and further investigations are required to confirm our findings.

Full Text:



Astin, M., Griffin, T., Neal, R. D., Rose, P., & Hamilton, W. (2011). The diagnostic value of symptoms for colorectal cancer in primary care: a systematic review. Br J Gen Pract, 61(586), e231-e243.

Burada, F., Nicoli, E. R., Ciurea, M. E., Uscatu, D. C., Ioana, M., & Gheonea, D. I. (2015). Autophagy in colorectal cancer: An important switch from physiology to pathology. World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 7(11), 271.

Chung, J. Y., Park, Y. C., Ye, H., & Wu, H. (2002). All TRAFs are not created equal: common and distinct molecular mechanisms of TRAF-mediated signal transduction. Journal of cell science, 115(4), 679-688.

De Rosa, M., Pace, U., Rega, D., Costabile, V., Duraturo, F., Izzo, P., & Delrio, P. (2015). Genetics, diagnosis and management of colorectal cancer. Oncology reports, 34(3), 1087-1096.

Jiang, Z.-F., Shao, L.-J., Wang, W.-M., Yan, X.-B., & Liu, R.-Y. (2012). Decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3 in human lung cancer. Molecular biology reports, 39(1), 259-267.

Kondo, Y., Kanzawa, T., Sawaya, R., & Kondo, S. (2005). The role of autophagy in cancer development and response to therapy. Nature Reviews Cancer, 5(9), 726.

Kabeya, Y., Mizushima, N., Ueno, T., Yamamoto, A., Kirisako, T., Noda, T., . . . Yoshimori, T. (2000). LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast Apg8p, is localized in autophagosome membranes after processing. The EMBO journal, 19(21), 5720-5728.

Lee, N.-K., & Lee, S.-Y. (2002). Modulation of life and death by the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factors (TRAFs). BMB Reports, 35(1), 61-66.

Haggar, F. A., & Boushey, R. P. (2009). Colorectal cancer epidemiology: incidence, mortality, survival, and risk factors. Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 22(4), 191.

Meng q, zheng m, liu h, song c, zhang w, yan j, qin l and liu x. 2012. TRAF6 regulates proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of osteosarcoma cell. Molecular and cellular biochemistry 371: 177-186.

Rajandram, R., Bennett, N., Morais, C., Johnson, D., & Gobe, G. (2012). Renal cell carcinoma: resistance to therapy, role of apoptosis, and the prognostic and therapeutic target potential of TRAF proteins. Medical hypotheses, 78(2), 330-336.

Rong y, wang d, wu w, jin d, kuang t, ni x, zhang l and lou w. 2014. TRAF6 is over-expressed in pancreatic cancer and promotes the tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells. Medical Oncology 31: 260.

Siegel, R. L., Miller, K. D., Fedewa, S. A., Ahnen, D. J., Meester, R. G., Barzi, A., & Jemal, A. (2017). Colorectal cancer statistics, 2017. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 67(3), 177-193.

Sun h, li x, fan l, wu g, li m and fang j. 2014. TRAF6 is upregulated in colon cancer and promotes proliferation of colon cancer cells. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology 53: 195-201.

Shen, Y., Li, D.-D., Wang, L.-L., Deng, R., & Zhu, X.-F. (2008). Decreased expression of autophagy-related proteins in malignant epithelial ovarian cancer. Autophagy, 4(8), 1067-1068.

Tanida, I., Ueno, T., & Kominami, E. (2004). LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology, 36(12), 2503-2518.

Zapata, J. M., Krajewska, M., Krajewski, S., Kitada, S., Welsh, K., Monks, A., . . . Gascoyne, R. D. (2000). TNFR-associated factor family protein expression in normal tissues and lymphoid malignancies. The Journal of Immunology, 165(9), 5084-5096.

Yoshioka, A., Miyata, H., Doki, Y., Yamasaki, M., Sohma, I., Gotoh, K., ... & Monden, M. (2008). LC3, an autophagosome marker, is highly expressed in gastrointestinal cancers. International journal of oncology, 33(3), 461-468.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Mahgol Mohammadi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.