Proximate Composition, Macro-Mineral Concentration and Phytochemical Screening of Seeds of Citrullus Lonatus

P.N Okoroh, S.C Onuoha, C.Y Ukegbu, E.U. Godwin- Nwakwasi, O.C. Chukwuka, D.O. Okereke


The research was aimed at determining the nutritional value and accessing the nutraceutical potential of locally processed tropical seed of Citrillus lonatus.Proximate composition, macro-mineral concentrations and phytochemical screening of seeds of Citrullus lonatus were conducted on dry weight basis using standard methods. Phytochemical screening revealed that tannin had the highest value (6.45±0.006 ) followed by flavonoid (3.37±0.047 ) . Alkaloid was appreciable in value (1.35±0.006) while HCN and phytate were low in value. Moisture content was 14.77±0.013% and dry matter was 85.21±0.01%.  Crude fat presented the highest value, 28.48±0.013% followed by crude protein (24.78±0.006%), total carbohydrate (18.44±0.006%), crude fiber (11.27±0.01%) and ash had the lowest value of 2.24±0.021%. The calorific value was high at 429.47±0.295 Kcal/100g sample. The concentrations of the analytes from the highest value to the lowest value in the sample was in the order potassium (457.60±0.670mg/kg), Magnesium(89.45±0.006mg/kg), Calcium (42.87±0.125mg/kg) and Sodium (38.26±0.008mg/kg) respectively .The potassium to sodium ratio was 12 ( > 1)  while the sodium to potassium ratio was 0.08(< 1). The results in this study  showed that Citrullus lonatus seeds are rich in crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, potassium, magnesium,calcium,sodium, tannin, alkaloid and flavonoid. They may therefore serve as good sources of food  nutrients and nutraceuticals to be utilized in the production of  food and feed supplements.


Proximate composition, macro-mineral, Phytochemical, Citrullus lonatus, seeds

Full Text:



Atasie, V. N., Akinhanmi, J.F and Ojiodu, C.C., (2009). Proximate analysis and physico-chemical properties of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.): Pakistan Journal of Nutrition,8: 194-197.

Achu, B.M., Fokou, E., Tchiegang, C., Fosto,M. and Tchouanguep, F.M (2000). Nutritive value of some Cucurbitaceae oil seeds from different regions in cameroon. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4: 1329-1334.

FAO (2005) . As World Population Grows.

McClatchey, W. (2005). Medicinal Biorpospecting and Ethnobatany Research. Ethnobot, Res. and Applications 3:169-190.

Edwards A.J., Vinyard B.T., Wiley E.R., Brown E.D., Collins K.J., Perkins-Veazie, P (2003). Consumption of watermelon juice increases plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene in humans. Journal of Nutrition 133, 1043-50.

Wehner, T.C., Shetty, N.V. and Elmstrom, G.W. (2001) Breeding and seed production. In: watermelons, characteristics, production and marketing. D.N.Maynard (Ed.). ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA, P. 27-73

Kumar R., Dia, M and Wehner, T.C. ( 2013). Implications of mating behavior in watermelon breeding. Hort Sci. 48(8), 960-964

Le, J, Chuan, J.D., Andy, H.L. and Colin , W.E. (2005). Do dietary lycopene and other carotenoids protect against prostate cancer ? International Journal of Cancer 113 : 1010-1014.

Rimando, A.M. and Perkins-Veazie, P.M. (2005) Determination of citrulline in watermelon rind. Journal of Chromatography A 1078: 196-200

El-Adaway, T.A. and Taha, K.M.(2001) Characteristics and composition ofdifferent seed oils and flours. FoodChem., 3:54-74

.Maynard, D.N.(2001). An introduction to the watermelon. In:D.N. Maynard (ed.) Watermelons: Characteristics, production and marketing. ASHS Press,Alexandria, Va.9-20

Khaki, A., Fatemeh, F, and Ohammed, N. (2013). Effects of watermelon seed extract( C.vulgaris) on spermatogenesisin rat. International Journal.of Women’s Health Reproduction Science 1:3

.Mahesh, T. and Menon, V.P. (2004). Quercetin alleviates oxidativestress in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.phytother.,18:123-127.

Liu, R.H. (2004). Potential energy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: Mechanism of action. Journal of Nutrition 134(12 Suppl):3479S – 3485S.

Adekunle, A.S. and Adekunle, O.C. (2009). Preliminary Assessment of Antimicrobial properties of aqueous extract of plantsagainst infectious diseses. Bio-Med. 1(3):20-24

AOAC (2006)International official methods of Analysis of theAOAC (W.Horwitiz Edition), 18th edn. Washington D.C., USA: AOAC international.

.Onyeike , E. N. And Acheru , G. N. ( 2002 ) Chemical composition ofselected oil seeds and physiochemical properties of the oil extraction. Food Chemistry, 77: 431 – 437.

Onyeike, E.N. and Ehirim , F.C.(2001). Chemical andsensory evaluation of melon fungus P.tuber regium) and melon fungus cake. Nigerian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 16(1): 77-81.

Obadoni, B.O.and Ochuko Ochuko , P. O. (2001) Phytochemical studies of comparativeefficacy of crude extracts of some botanical plants in Edo and Delta States oNigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied

P.N. Okoroh, M.C.K. Duru, S.C.Onuoha and B.A.Amadi (2019) Proximate Composition,Phytochemical an Mineral Analysis of the Fruits of Ficus capensis. International Journal of Innovative Research. 8(9), 83-88

.Uzoekwe, S. , Mohammed, I. and Onyibe, H.I.(2015). Nutritional evaluation of S. setigera seeds and pod. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11:139-141

Okoroh, P.N., Uwakwe, A.A., and Manago-Ighorodje, C.C. (2017) Proximate, Macroelement and trace mineral composition of the fruit bodies of pleurotus ostreatus (Pleurotacea) cultivated by three substrate organic supplementation techniques. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 3: 4-10.

.Olutiola, P.O., Famurewa, o., and Sonntag, H.G., (1991). An introduction to Microbiology. Approach to General Practical Heidelberger verlgsansatalt and DrukereiGMbH, Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Pp 267.

Uraih, N. & Izuagbe, Y. (1990) Public Health. Food and Industrial Microbiology: Nigeria: Uniben Press

Prince N. Okoroh and Samuel C. Onuoha (2019) Nutrient and SelectedPhytochemical Composition of Cashew Nut ( Anarcardum occidentale ) and Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Seed Pastes. International Journal of Advanced Research (IJAR). 7(9), 215-223.

Adeyeye, E.I. and Omolayo, F.O. (2011) Chemical composition and functional properties of leaf protein concentrates of Amaranthus hybridus and Telfairia occidentalis. J. Agr. & Bio of North America; ISSN: 2151-7517.

.Fredrick, M., Sheila, O., Richard, K.M., Stella, W and Knight, M. (2013).Proximate composition, amino acids and vitamins profile of pleurotus citrinopileatus singer;An indigenous mushroom in Kenya. American Journal of Food Technology, 8: 200-206.

Sumaira, S., Ghulam, M., Hira, m., Connie, M.W., Yasir, K. and Muhammed, S. (2016). Mineral profile of wild Ganoderma lucidum and four commercial excotic mushroom by ICP-OES and LIBS. Journal of Food and Nutritional Research. 4 (11): 703-708.

Hu, F. B. and Willet, W. C. (2002) Optimal diets for prevention of coronary heart disease. Journal of American Medical Association. 288: 2569-2578.

Aletor, O. (1999) Chemical composition of common leaf vegetables and functional properties of their leaf protein concentrates. M. Tech. (Ind.Chem) thesis, Federal University of Technology, Akure.

Danlami,U. ,David,B.M. , Thomas, S. A. (2012). “The phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of S. gavirosa leaf extracts”. Research Journal in engineering and applied science 1(6), 351-354.

Olaniyi, M.B., Lawal, B.O., Olaniyi, A.A.(2018).Proximate , phytochemical screening , and mineral analysis of Crescentia cujete L. leaves. Journal of Medicinal Plants for Economic Development,2(1),a28.

Akubugwo, I. E., Obasi, A. N. and Ginika, S. C. (2007). Nutritional potential of the leaves and seeds of black nightshade-Solanum nigrum L. varvirginicum from Afikpo-Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutri., 6: 323-326.

Ishida, A., Toma, T., Ghozali, D. I. , Marjenah (2000). In situ study of the effects of elevated temperature on photoinhibition in climas and pioneer species. In rain forest ecosystems of east Kalimantan: El Nino, Drought, Fire and Human impacts. Ecological studies, vol.

Ayoola, P. B. and Adeyeye, A. (2010). Effect of heating on the chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of Arachis hypogeae (Groundnut) seed flour and oil, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(8): 751-754

Dike, M.C. (2012). Proximate,phytochemical and nutrient composition of some fruits, seeds and leaves of some plant species at Umudike, Nigeria. ARPNJ. AgricBiol. Sci. 5:7-16

Sofowora, A. (1993) Screening plants for BioactiveAgents. In: Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine.

.Ikewuchi , J.C., Onyeike,E.N. and Uwakwe, A.A. (2012). Nutritional potential of the leaves of Alkalypha wilkensiana godsEffiana, muel Arg. Journal of Applied Science andEnvironmental Management 14(3), 21-24.

Islam,Md Rezuanul, Paul, D.K and Shaha , R.K. (2004) Nutritional importance of some leafy vegetables in Bangladish. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science. 78: 1380-1384

Ryan, M.F. (1991). The role of magnesium in Clinical Biochemistry: an overview. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 128: 19-26.

Hassan, L.G., Abdulrahaman, F.N. and Zuru, A.A. (2004). Nutritional andPhytochemical investigation of Diospyrosmespiliformis (L.). Nigerian Journal of Basic Applied Science 13:1-8

. Nkafamiya, I., S.A. Osemeahon, U.U. Modibbo and A.Aminu (2010)Nutritional status of non-conventional leafy vegetables, Ficus asperiolia and Ficus sycomorus.African Journal of Food Science, 4(3) : 104- 108.

Olusanya , J.O.(2008) Essentials of food and nutrition, (pp62-75) Apex Book Limited Lagos. ISBN978-48-04554.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 P.N Okoroh, S.C Onuoha, C.Y Ukegbu, E.U. Godwin- Nwakwasi, O.C. Chukwuka, D.O. Okereke

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.