The Cost of Retrofitting Steel-Concrete Composite Buildings Against Progressive Collapse With Steel Cables

Georgios S. Papavasileiou, Nikolaos G. Pnevmatikos


Steel cables are an attractive means of retrofit with various engineering applications. They have been extensively used to strengthen deficient buildings against gravitational or earthquake-induced loads. This work investigates the use of steel cables as a means of retrofitting steel-concrete composite buildings against progressive collapse. The effect of the building’s characteristics on the total retrofit cost is studied. A fair assessment of designs defined for different requirements is achieved by definition of the most cost-effective solution for each scenario. This is achieved by an optimization algorithm, i.e. the Evolution Strategies, which is employed to define the solution with the desired performance and, at the same time, the minimum cost. For this purpose, a total number of 144 optimizations have been performed. The results yielded reveal the different properties of each retrofit scenario.


steel-concrete composite, retrofit methods, progressive collapse, steel cables, optimization

Full Text:



C. Pearson and N. Dellatte. “Ronan point apartment tower collapse and its effects on building codes”, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol.19, pp. 172-177, 2005.

Department of Defense (DoD). Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) – Design of buildings to resist progressive collapse, UFC 4-023-03, USA, 2009.

G.S.A. ‘Progressive Collapse Design Guidelines Applied to Concrete Moment-Resisting Frame Buildings’, General Services Administration, Nashville, Tennessee. 2004.

CO.S.T. TU0601 – Canisius T.D.G. (Editor). Structural Robustness Design for Practicing Engineers 2011.

J. Berman and M. Bruneau. “ Plastic analysis and design of steel plate shear walls”.vol. 129 no. 11,pp. 1448-1456. 2003.

D. Charmpis, P. Komodromos and M. Phocas. Optimized earthquake response of multi-storey buildings with seismic isolation at various elevations. “Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics (Wiley), vol 41 no. 15, pp.2289-2310. 2012.

M. Elgaaly. Thin steel plate shear walls behaviour and analysis. “Thin-Walled Structures”, vol.32 no.1-3, pp.151-180. 1998.

P. Javadi and T. Yamakawa. Retrofitting of RC frames by steel braced frames utilizing a hybrid connection technique.” Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology”, vol. 11 no. 3, pp.89-107. 2013.

Kelly, T. Base isolation of structures. Design Guidelines. Wellington: Holmes Consulting Group. 2001.

Y. Lu and G. Li. Slim buckling-restrained steel plate shear wall and simplified model. :Advanced Steel Construction”, vol. 3, pp. 282-294. 2012.

M. R. Maheri and H. Ghaffarzadeh. Connection overstrength in steel-braced RC frames. “Engineering Structures”, pp. 1938-1948. 2008.

M.R. Maheri, R. Kousari and M. Razazan. Pushover tests on steel X-braced and knee-braced RC frames. “Engineering Structures”, 25, 1697-1705. 2003.

A. Martelli and M. Forni. Seismic isolation and protection systems: Seismic isolation and other antiseismic systems. Recent applications in Italy and worldwide. “The Journal of the Anti-Seismic Systems International Society (ASSISi)”,vol. 1,no 1, pp. 75-123. 2010.

A. Massumi and M. Absalan. Interaction between bracing system and moment resisting frame in braced RC frames.” Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering” vol. 13, pp. 260-268. 2013.

J.P. Moehle. State of research on seismic retrofit of concrete building structures in the US. “US-Japan Symposium and Workshop on Seismic Retrofit of Concrete Structures—State of Research and Practice”. 2000.

Naeim, F. and Kelly, J. M. Design of seismic isolated structures. From theory to practice. California: John WIlley and Sons INC. 1999.

J. Nie, J. Fan, X, Liu and Y. Huang. Comparative study on steel plate shear walls used in a high-rise building. “Journal of structural engineering”, vol. 139 no 1, pp. 85-97. 2013.

R. Ozcelik, B. Binici and O. Kurc. Pseudo dynamic test of a deficient reinforced concrete frame upgraded with internal steel frames.” Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics” vol. 42, pp. 763-778. 2013.

Skinner, R. I., Robinson, W. H. and McVerry, G. H. An introduction to seismic isolation. West Sussex: John Willey and Sons Ltd. 1993.

M. D. Symans, F. A. Charney, A. S. Whittaker, M. C. Constantinou, C. A. Kircher, M. W. Johnson, et al. Energy dissipation systems for seismic applications: current practice and recent developments. “Journal of Structural Engineering”, vol. 134 no. 1, pp. 3-21. 2008.

V. Varnava and P. Komodromos. Assessing the effect of inherent nonlinearities in the analysis and design of a low-rise base isolated steel building. “Earthquakes and Structures” vol, 5 no. 5. 2013.

Q. Zhao and A. Astaneh-AsI. Cyclic behaviour of traditional and innovative composite shear walls. “Journal of Structural Engineering”, vol. 130 no. 2, pp. 271-284. 2004.

X. Zou and C. Chan. “Optimal Drift Performance Design of Base Isolated Buildings Subject to Earthquake Loads”. In 6th International Conference on Computer Aided Optimum Design of Structures (pp. 369-378). Southampton, Boston: WIT Press. 2001.

M. Arduini, A. Ambrisi and A. Di Tommaso. Shear failure of concrete beams reinforced with FRP plates. In Proceedings of the 3rd Materials Engineering Conference, (pp. 123-130). San Diego, CA, USA. 1994.

S.M. Alcocer and J. ). Jirsa. Strength of reinforced concrete frame connections rehabilitated by jacketing. ACI “Structural Journal”, vol. 90 no. 3 pp. , 249-261. 1993.

S. Bousias, D, Biskinis, M. Fardis and A-L. Spathis. Strength, stiffness and cyclic deformation capacity of concrete jacketed members. ACI “Structural Journal”, vol. 104 no. 5, pp. 521-531. 2007.

Y. H. Chai, J. N. Priestley and F. Seible. Analytical model for steel-jacketed RC circular bridge columns. “Journal of Structural Engineering”, vol. 120 no. 8, pp. 2358-2376. 1994.

M. J. Chajes, T. F. Januszka, D. R. Mertz, A. Theodore, J. Thomson, W. William and J. Finch. Shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams using extrernally applied composite fabrics. ACI “Structural Journal”, vol. 92 no.9 , pp. 295-303. 1995.

J, F. Chen and J. G, Teng. Shear capacity of FRP-strengthened RC beams: FRP debonding. “Construction and building materials”, vol. 17 no. 1, pp.27-41. 2003.

E, Choi, Y.-S. Chung, K. Park and J.-S. Jeon. Effect of steel wrapping jackets on the bond strength of concrete and the lateral performance of circular RC columns. “Engineering Structures”, vol. 48, pp. 43-54. 2013.

E. Choi, I. Rhee, J. Park and B. S. Cho. Seismic retrofit of plain concrete piers of railroad bridges using composite of FRP-steel plates. “Composite Part B: Engineering”, vol. 42 no. 5, pp.1097 - 1107. 2011.

E. Julio, F, Branco and V. Silva. Reinforced concrete jacketing - Interface influence on monotonic loading response. ACI “Structural Journal”, vol. 102 no.2,pp. 252 - 257. 2005.

K. Karimi, M. J, Tait and W, W. El-Dakhakhni. Testing and modeling of novel FRP-encased steel-concrete composite column. “Composite Structures”, vol. 93, pp. 1463-1473. 2011.

A.P. Lampropoulos and S.E. Dritsos. Modeling of RC columns strengthened with RC jackets. “Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics”, vol 40, pp. 1689-1705. 2011.

M.–L. Lin, P.-C. Chen, K.-C. Tsai, Y.-J. Yu and J.-G. Liu. Seismic steel jacketing of rectangular RC bridge columns for the mitigation of lap-splice failures. “Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics”, vol. 39, pp. 1687-1710. 2010.

Y. Mitsui, K. Murakami, K. Takeda and H. Sakai. A study on shear reinforcement of reinforced concrete beams externally bonded with carbon fiber sheets.” Composite Interfaces”, vol. 5 no. 4, pp. 285-295. 1998.

V. K. Papanikolaou, S.P. Stefanidou and A.J. Kappos. The effect of preloading on the strength of jacketed R/C columns. “Construction and Building Materials “ vol 38, pp. 54-63. 2013.

Papavasileiou, G. S., Charmpis, D. C. and Lagaros, N. D. (2011). Optimized seismic retrofit of steel-concrete composite frames. In Proceedings of Third ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (Vol. 1, pp. 4573-4586).

X. S. Ren and B. Zhou. Design and analysis of reinforced concrete beam retrofitted by externally bonded H-type steel member. “Procedia Engineering”, vol. 14, pp. 2133-2140. 2011.

S. Rizkalla, M. Dawood and D. Schnerch. Development of carbon fiber reinforced polymer system for strengthening steel structures. “Composites - Part A: Applied Sciences and Manufacturing”, vol. 39, pp. 388-397. 2008.

M. P. Rodriguez. Seismic load tests on reinforced concrete columns strengthended by jacketing. ACI “Structural Journal”, vol. 91 no. 2, pp. 150-159. 1994.

R. Seracino, M. Raizal Saifulnaz and D. Oehlers. Generic debonding resistance of EB and NSM plate-to-concrete joints. “Journal of Composites for Construction”, vol. 11 no. 1, pp. 62-70. 2007.

R. Su, B. Cheng, L. Wang, W. Siu and Y. Zhu. Use of bolted steel plates for strengthening of reinforced concrete beams and columns. IES journal Part A: “Civil and Structural Engineering”, vol. 4 no. 2, pp. 55-68. 2011.

S. P. Tastani and S. J. Pantazopoulou. Detailing procedures for seismic rehabilitation of reinforced concrete members with fiber reinforced polymers. “Engineering Structures”, vol. 30 no. 2, pp. 450-461. 2008.

S. P. Tastani, S. J. Pantazopoulou, D. Zdoumba, V. Plakantaras and E. Akritidis. Limitations of FRP jacketing in confining old-type reinforced concrete members in axial compression. “Journal of Composites for Construction”, vol. 10 no. 1, pp. 13-25. 2006.

M. Tavakkolizadeh and H. Saadatmanesh. Strengthening of steel-concrete composite girders using carbon fiber reinforced polymers sheets. “Journal of Structural Engineering”, vol. 129 no. 1, pp. 30-40. 2003.

G. E. Thermou, S. J. Pantazopoulou and A. S. Elnashai. Flexural behavior of brittle RC members rehabilitated with concrete jacketing. “Journal of Structural Engineering”, vol. 133 no 10, pp. 1373-1384. 2007.

G. E. Thermou, S. J. Pantazopoulou and A. S. Elnashai. Analytical modeling of interface behavior in reinforced concrete jacketed members. ASCE. 2004.

T. Triantafillou and C. Antonopoulos. Design of concrete flexural members strengthened in shear with FRP. “Journal of Composites for Construction”, vol. 4 no. 4, pp. 198-205. 2000.

K. G. Vandoros and S. E. Dritsos. Concrete jacket construction detail effectiveness when strengthening RC columns. “Construction and Building Materials”, vol. 22 no. 3, pp. 264-276. 2008.

Y.-F. Wu, T. Liu and D. J. Oehlers. Fundamental principles that govern retrofitting of reinforced concrete columns by steel and FRP jacketing. “Advances in Structural Engineering”, vol. 4 no. 9, pp. 507-533. 2006.

Y. Xiao and H. Wu. Retrofit of reinforced concrete columns using partially stiffened steel jackets. “Journal of Structural Engineering”. Vol 129, pp. 725-732. 2003.

J.E. Crawford. “Retrofit methods to mitigate progressive collapse”. In The Multihazard Mitigation Council of the National Institute of Building Sciences, Report on the July 2002 National Workshop and Recommendations for Future Effort. 2002.

A. Astanesh-Asl. “Progressive collapse prevention in new and existing buildings”. In Proceedings of the 9th Arab Structural Engineering Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE. 2003.

A. Saad, A. Said and Y. Tian. “Overview of progressive collapse analysis and retrofit techniques”. In Proceedings of the 5th International Engineering and Construction Conference (IECC’5). ASCE. 2008.

K. Galal and T. El-Sawy. “Effect of retrofit strategies on mitigating progressive collapse of steel frame structures.” Journal of Constructional Steel Research, vol. 66, pp. 520-531. 2010.

J. Kin, H. Choi and K.W. Min. “Use of rotational friction dampers to enhance seismic and progressive collapse resisting capacity of structures”. The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings. Vol. 20, pp. 515-537. 2011.

G.S. Papavasileiou and D.C. Charmpis. “Optimized retrofit of seismically designed buildings to withstand progressive collapse”. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. 2015.

G.S. Papavasileiou. “Assessment of the effectiveness of cabling system configuration in retrofitting steel-concrete composite buildings”. In Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. 2017.

G.S. Papavasileiou and D.C. Charmpis. “Retrofit of seismically designed steel-concrete composite structures to withstand progressive collapse”. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Recent Advances in Nonlinear Modelling – Design and Rehabilitation of Structures. 2017.

J.F. Beltran, J. Rungamornrat and E.B. Williamson. “Computational model for the analysis of damaged ropes”. In The Thirteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. 2003.

J. F. Beltran and E.B. Williamson. “Investigation of the damage-dependent response of mooring ropes”. In The Fourteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. 2004.

J. F. Beltran and E. B. Williamson. Investigation of the damage-dependent response of mooring ropes. “Journal of engineering mechanics”, vol 135 no. 11, pp. 1237-1247. 2009.

G. A. Costello and J. W. Phillips. Effective modulus of twisted wire cables. “Journal of the Engineering Mechanics Division”, vol. 102 no. 1, pp. 171-181. 1976.

G. A. Costello. Theory of wire rope. Springer Science and Business Media. 1997.

D, Elata, R. Eshkenazy and M. P. Weiss. The mechanical behavior of a wire rope with an independent wire rope core. “International Journal of Solids and Structures”, vol. 41 no. 5, pp. 1157-1172. 2004.

S. R. Ghoreishi, P. Cartraud, P. Davies and T. Messager. Analytical modeling of synthetic fiber ropes subjected to axial loads. Part I: A new continuum model for multilayered fibrous structures. “International Journal of Solids and Structures”, vol. 44 no. 9, pp. 2924-2942. 2007.

F. H. Hruska. Calculation of stresses in wire ropes. “Wire and wire products”, vol. 26, pp. 766-767. 1951.

F. H. Hruska. Radial forces in wire ropes. “Wire and wire products”, vol. 27 no. 5, pp. 459-463. 1952.

F. H. Hruska. Tangential forces in wire ropes. “Wire and wire products”, vol. 28 no. 5, pp. 455-460. 1953.

N. C. Huang. Finite extension of an elastic strand with a central core. “ASME J. Appl. Mech”, vol. 45 no. 4), pp. 852-858. 1978.

R. H. Knapp. Nonlinear analysis of a helically armored cable with nonuniform mechanical properties in tension and torsion. In OCEAN 75 Conference (pp. 155-164). IEEE. 1975.

R. H. Knapp. Derivation of a new stiffness matrix for helically armoured cables considering tension and torsion. “International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering”, vol. 14 no. 4, pp. 515-529. 1979.

K. Kumar J. Botsis Contact stresses in multilayered strands under tension and torsion. “Journal of Applied Mechanics“ vol. 68:pp.432–440. 2001.

K. Kumar and Jr. J. E. Cochran. Closed-form analysis for elastic deformations of multilayered strands. “Journal of Applied Mechanics”, vol. 54, pp. 899. 1987.

C. M. Leech , J.W. Hearle, M.S. Overington and S.J. Banfield. “Modelling tension and torque properties of fibre ropes and splices”. In The Third International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers. 1993.

S. Machida and A. J. Durelli. Response of a strand to axial and torsional displacements. “Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science”, vol. 15 no. 4, pp. 241-251. 1973.

A. Nawrocki and M. Labrosse. A finite element model for simple straight wire rope strands. “Computers and Structures”, vol. 77 no. 4, pp. 345-359. 2000.

JW. Philips and GA. Costello. Analysis of wire rope with internal-wirerope cores. ASME “Journal of Applied Mechanics”, vol. 52, pp. 510–6. 1985

J. Rungamornrat, J. F. Beltran and E. B. Williamson. Computational model for synthetic-fiber rope response. In 15th Eng. “Mechanics Conference, ASCE”, New York, USA. 2002.

S. Sathikh, M. B. K. Moorthy and M. Krishnan. A symmetric linear elastic model for helical wire strands under axisymmetric loads. “The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design”, vol. 31 no. 5, pp. 389-399. 1996.

W. S. Utting and N. Jones. The response of wire rope strands to axial tensile loads—Part II. Comparison of experimental results and theoretical predictions. “International journal of mechanical sciences”, vol. 29 no. 9, pp. 621-636. 1987.

W.S. Utting and N. Jones. The response of wire rope strands to axial tensile loads—Part I. Experimental results and theoretical predictions. “International journal of mechanical sciences”, vol. 29 no. 9, pp. 605-619. 1987.

S. A. Velinsky. General nonlinear theory for complex wire rope. “International journal of mechanical sciences”, vol. 27 no. 7, pp. 497-507. 1985.

S. Mazzoni, F. McKenna, M. Scott and G.L. Fenves. “Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (OpenSees)”, PEER Center, California, USA. 2006.

EN 1993-1-1. “Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings”, Brussels, Belgium: CEN. 2005.

EN 1994-1-1. “Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings”, Brussels, Belgium: CEN. 2004.

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). “Improvement of nonlinear static seismic analysis procedures, FEMA-440”, Washington DC, USA, 2005.

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). “Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings, Standard ASCE/SEI 41-06 (incl. suppl. 1)”, Reston, Virginia, USA. 2006.

Rechenberg, I. “Evolutionsstrategie: Optimierung technischer systeme nach prinzipien der biologischen evolution”. Stuttgart, Germany: Frommann-Holzboog Verlag. 1973.

H.P. Schwefel. “Evolutionsstrategie und numerische Optimierung”. Berlin : (Doctoral dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin). 1975.

G.S. Papavasileiou and D.C. Charmpis. “Seismic design optimization of multi-storey steel-concrete composite buildings”, Comput. Struct., vol. 170, pp. 49-61. 2016.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Georgios S. Papavasileiou, Nikolaos G. Pnevmatikos

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.