Study Of The Bacteriological Quality Of Tap Water From The Boma Center To Kongo Central/DR Congo

Live Loki MAVEMA, Déogratias Schie’ Nkung’ MUTAMBEL’HITY, Yvonne Bomangwa IBEBEKE, Jean-Claude Tshijik KAMB, Edouard Mbungu SISA


This study, which focuses on the bacteriological quality of distribution water from the center of Boma to Kongo Central in the Democratic Republic of Congo, was carried out in the port and historic city of Boma in twelve sampling stations during the rainy season. The city of Boma where insalubrity remains a real public health problem, bacteriological analyzes consisted of the search for Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, total coliforms and faecal streptococci; analyses of the physical and chemical quality of the water in the network mainly concerned pH, residual free chlorine and turbidity according to the WHO requirement. pH showed a seasonal average of 83.3% of the sample compliance rate with the 2011 WHO recommendations, residual free chlorine presented 58.3% and 75% for turbidity.

From a bacteriological point of view: 42 samples (58.3%) out of a total of 72 complied with WHO (2011) recommendations for Escherichia coli, 24 samples (33.3%) complied for faecal coliforms and 24 samples (33.3%) were compliant for total coliforms. Concerning faecal streptococci, 60 samples, or 83.3% compliance rate with the said recommendations with the highest pollution rate at the E.R.KIK station and a low rate observed at the E.R.KIS station.

Overall, the estimated non-compliance rate of 47.9% of samples with WHO recommendations in this distribution system sufficiently demonstrates the lack of effective treatment of the water distributed or the lack of ongoing maintenance in the system. This lack of treatment and maintenance can be the cause of some waterborne epidemics that regularly threaten the population of the city of Boma. All in all, the results obtained during the study period prove that this distribution system provided water that contained some faecal pollution indicator bacteria.


Microbiology quality, Distribution network, water, Boma

Full Text:



Bontoux, J., 1983, Introduction à l'étude des eaux douces, eaux naturelles, eaux usées, eaux de boisson, Edition CEBEDOC, sprl, Liège, 63 pages.

Geldreich EE., The Bacteriology of Water. Tosaley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infection (9th edn). Arnold Pub.: London, 1998.

Davis R. and Hirji R. Water Quality: Assessment and Protection. Water Resources and Environment Technical Note D.1. The World Bank: Washington, D.C, Washington, United States of America, 2003.

Génevaux, C., 2017, The SDGs, a new framework for the development of drinking water, sanitation and hygiene services, Ed. pS-Eau, Paris.

Wamuini, L.S., 2010, Ichtyofaune de l'Inkisi (Bas-Congo/DRC): Diversity and Ecology. PhD thesis, University of Liège (Belgium), 351 pages.

Nikiana, M., 2004, Cours d'eau de Kinshasa, comme ressource économique à intégration dans le gestion de l'ecosystem urbain, Mémoire de DEA, Droits de l'homme et gestion de l'Environnement, Chaire-UNESCO/UNIKIN/DRC 247p.

Ministry of Energy of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Annual Report, 2019

Boma City Hall, Democratic Republic of Congo, Annual Report 2018.

WHO, 2011. Drinking Water Quality Guidelines, 4th edition, Integrating the first additive, 539p.

Rodier JJ, Beuffe H, Bournaud M, Broutin JP, Geoffray C, Kovacsik G, Laporte J, Pattee E, Plissier M, Rodi L, Vial J., 1984. Water Analysis (7th edition). Dunod : Paris. 1384 p.

Rodier, J., 1994, l'analyse de l'eau : eaux naturelles, eaux résiduaires, eau de mer, 9ème édition, Paris. 1345 p

Lebart, L., Morineau, A. and Piron, M., 1995, Statistique exploiratoire multidimensionle, Ed. Dunod, p455.

Mahamat Seid Ali Malloum, Maoudombaye, Abdelsalam Tidjani, Ndoumtamia A.G. and Loukhman Bichara, 2015, Evaluation of the physico-chemical quality of public water supply water of the Chadian Water Company in N'djamena, Chad, Faculty of Science and Technology of the University of Doba in Journal of Applied Biosciences 95:8973 – 8981 ISSN 1997–5902.

Durand, J., 2016, Continuous monitoring of water quality in distribution networks: laboratory and field validation of multiparametric continuous measurement probes, Master in EOLOGIC AND MINING, École Polytechnique de Montréal, DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF MONTREAL, QUEBEC. 24p.

Gnazou MDT, Assogba K,Sabi BE, Bawa L.M., 2015. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of water used in schools in the prefecture of Zio (Togo). Int. J. Biol. Chem. Sci., 9(1): 504-516. doi: ...

Diop C.I.K., 2006, Study of the microbiological quality of drinking water packaged in bags and sold on public roads in the DAKAR region, Mémoire de DEA. de Productions animales, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, UNIVERSITE CHEIKH ANTA DIOP DE DAKAR, 40 p.

Mavema, L.L., 2010, Bacteriological analysis of drinking water consumed in the city of Mbanza-Ngungu, in SCIENTIA XVII (2010)1:64-77.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Edouard Mbungu SISA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.